The Country
 
 
President
João Manuel Gonçalves Lourençowas born on 05 March 1954 in the city of Lobito, Benguela Province. He is the son of Sequeira João Lourenço, a nurse from Malanje and his mother, Josefa Gonçalves Cipriano Lourenço, a seamstress from Namibe, both deceased.  
 

He completed his primary and secondary studies in Bié Province, where his father was being surveillance for 10 years. From 1958 to 1960 in the Sao Paulo prison in Luanda for the exercise of clandestine political activity, as a nurse in Lobito Port.

He continued his studies in Luanda, at the Industrial School of Luanda and the Industrial Institute of Luanda.

After the fall of the fascist regime in Portugal, he joined the national liberation struggle in the Republic of Congo in August 1974, having made his first political-military education at the Center for Revolutionary Education (CIR) Kalunga .

He was part of the first group of MPLA combatants, who entered the national territory via Miconge, in the direction of the city of Cabinda, after the fall of the Portuguese Colonial Regime.

On the eve of Independence, he participated in the fighting at the border of N'Tó / Yema and in others against the FNLA / Zairean Army coalition, culminating in the defeat of those forces that wanted to occupy the territory of that Angola Province.

During his participation in the liberation struggle and shortly after the proclamation of National Independence, on 11 November 1975, he trained in heavy artillery, served as Political Commissioner at various levels, from platoon, company, battalion, brigade and Commissar Political of the 2nd Political-Military Region in Cabinda, between 1977/78.

Following the qualification effort of the Angolan People's Liberation Armed Forces - FAPLA, he left for the Soviet Union from 1978 to 1982, he furthered his military training and completed a master's degree in Historical Sciences from the Political Academy -military V.I. Lenin.

From 1982 to 1983, he participated in the military operations in the center of the country, Kwanza Sul, Huambo and Bié, with command post in Huambo.

From 1983 to 1986, he was appointed by the President of the Republic and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces to serve as Provincial Commissar of Moxico and President of the Regional Military Council of the 3rd Military Political Region.

From 1986 to 1989, by decision of the President of the MPLA and the Republic of Angola, he was assigned to perform the duties of 1st Secretary of the MPLA Provincial Committee and Provincial Commissioner of Benguela.

From 1989 to 1990 he was appointed to the position of Head of the National Political Directorate of FAPLA, and he was promoted to the FAPLA Generalate.

From 1991 to 1998, he became Secretary of the Political Bureau for Information and, for a short period of time, Secretary of the Political Bureau for the Economic and Social Sphere, and also assumed the position of Chairman of the Group Parliamentary Assembly of the MPLA.

Following the Fourth MPLA Ordinary Congress, he is elected by the Central Committee to serve as the MPLA Secretary General from 1998 to 2003, assuming the position of President of the Constitutional Commission of the National Assembly. From 2003 to April 2014, he served as the 1st Vice-President of the National Assembly.

General in the reform is designated, by Presidential Decree, Minister of National Defense in April 2014.

He has been a member of the MPLA Central Committee since 1985 and has been a member of the Party's Political Bureau since 1990, and the MPLA Vice-President was elected by the Central Committee following the VII MPLA Ordinary Congress held in August 2016.

He is married to Ana Afonso Dias Lourenço and father of 6 children.

He practiced football and karate; his hobby such as reading, chess and riding.

In addition to the Portuguese language, he speaks English, Russian and Spanish.

 
 
Geography
 

Geographical coordinates
The Republic of Angola is situated in the southern part of the West coast
of the African Continent

Latitude North -04°22`G /South-18°02`G.
Longitude East -24°05`E.G / West -11°41`E.G
Area 1,246,700 km2
Atlantic coastline 1.650 Km
Land borders 4.837 Km
North Republic of Congo and Democratic Republic of Congo
East Democratic Republic o Congo and Republic of Zambia
South Republic of Namibia
East Atlantic Ocean
 
Climate

Angola has two seasons: rainy and hot season from September to May, and the dry season. The dry season, or season of draughts, is less hot and extends from May to September
There are two climatic zones from the ocean coast towards the interior of the country: the coastal region with annual relative humidity of 30% and average temperature above 23ºC, and inner region subdivided into Northern Zone, with elevated precipitation and high temperatures, High Zone, which includes mountainous central regions with dry climate and lower temperatures, and South-Eastern Zone, a semi-dry region influenced by proximity to the Namib Desert, an extension of the Kalahari Desert affected by large tropical continental airmasses.
This climatic diversity corresponds to a potential for tourism represented by the richest natural heritage with diverse animal and plant species, offering all kinds of leisure and exploration activities.
Average temperatures: maximum 27ºC, minimum 17ºC

 
Flora
Angola has five types of natural zones: dense rainforests of Maiombe containing rear types of timber, Savannas, usually mixed with forest, such as Lunda and dry Savannas with trees and bush in Luanda, lowlands of Cassanje and some areas of Lunda.
There are zones of steppes along the landstrip starting from the south of Sumbe and, finally, zones of desert occupying a narrow strip of coastal area to the extreme south of the country, where in Namib Desert we can find “Welwitschia Mirabilis”, a species unique in the world that also characterise this country.
 
Fauna
Angola has numerous animal species spread around various regions of the country. The forests of Maiombe are home to gorillas, chimpanzees and parrots; in the more humid natural zones of the North, Centre, Centre-East we can find golungo antelope, giant sable antelope, a unique species threatened by extinction, pygmy antelope and elephants. In drier regions there are species of Angolan springbok, gemsbok, or Oryx gazelle, antelope gnu, impala, cheetah and buffalo, as well as species of elephant, zebra and giraffe. The animals with common presence throughout entire territory are hyenas, red antelopes, lions, leopards and hippopotamus. Marine fauna includes an enormous variety of fish, sea and river animals, including crocodiles and alligators.
 
Main Rivers
Kwanza is the main river of Angola, 1000 km long, of which only 240 kilometres are suitable for navigation. The second largest river is Kubango with 975 km, the third is Cunene with 800 km and, finally, Zair with 150 km, fully open for navigation. The rivers of Angola offer opportunities for creation of new businesses, either of purely tourist nature or mixed type, such as commerce-tourism.
 
Mineral Resources
Angola is a country immensely rich in mineral resources. Angolan soil is said to contain 35 out of the most important 45 products of world trade, including crude oil, natural gas, diamonds, phosphates, bituminous substances, iron, copper, magnesium, gold and ornamental rocks.

 
 
History
 

Brief historical data
• Ethnicity: Bantu is the ethnic majority of the country
• Arrival of the Portuguese: 1482 (Diogo Cão)
• Political Origins: 500 year of Portuguese colonial rule (1482/1975)
• Founding of the first city (Luanda): 1605
• Date of Independence: 11 November 1975
   - 14 years of war of National Liberation (1961/1975)
• The first Government: MPLA
• The first President of the Republic: Agostinho Neto (1975-1979)
• Inauguration of José Eduardo dos Santos: 21 September 1979
• Protocol of Bicesse: 31 May 1991
• First free elections: September 1992
• Protocol of Lusaka: 20 November 1994
• Inauguration of the GRNU: 11 April 1997
• 2nd legislative election won by MPLA with 81 percent of the votes: 5 September 2008

 
 
 
Demographic Data
 
Population
Angola has population of 16,000,000 inhabitants (49,3% male, 50,7% female), which consists of several peoples, ethnic groups and cultures speaking various languages. Portuguese is the Official Language of Angola.
 

Official Language
Official Language of Angola is Portuguese.
Main national languages
Umbundu, Kimbundu, Kikongo, Cokwe, Fiote, Kwanyama.

Religions
Catholics 51%; Protestants 17%; Traditional religions (Animist) 30%; Other 2%.

 
Political and Administrative Organisation
The multi-party democracy has been established in 1992; the same year when the first democratic elections had taken place. The Constitution establishes a semi-presidential system with the following State organs: The President of the Republic, the National Assembly, the Government with a 5-year mandate, and Courts.
 
Political and Administrative Division
18 Provinces, 163 Municipalities, 475 Communes.
 
 
 
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